factor of size transformation In
similar figures, the ratio of a distance or length in an image to the corresponding
distance or length in a preimage. Also called ratio of similitude.
Ex: When comparing
the following small right triangle to its similar large right triangle,
we see a scale factor of 1/2 or 0.5.
A triangle with no two sides of the same length.
A calculator which writes very large or small numbers
in scientific notation and uses the powering, factorial, square root,
negative, and reciprocal keys. This type of calculator has the proper
arithmetical, "order of operations" installed in its brain.
So it knows that parentheses must be calculated first, then exponents,
then multiplication and division from left to right, and finally addition
and subtraction from left to right.
a cheap, non scientific calculator will perform the operations in the
order that you enter them, so if you type 3+2x4 on a non scientific
calculator, you get 20, which is the WRONG answer. The multiplication
needs to be done FIRST so the correct answer is 11. A scientific calculator
will give you the correct answer, because it knows it must multiply
notation for large numbers
A way of writing
a large number in terms of a positive integer power of 10 multiplied by
a number greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10.
notation for small numbers
A way of writing
a small number in terms of a negative integer power of 10 multiplied by
a number greater than or equal to one and less than 10.
a circle A
line that intersects a circle in two distinct points.
The figure bounded by two radii and the included arc of the circle.
On a line, the set consisting of the distinct points A and B (its endpoints)
and all points between A and B. Also called line segment.
Half a circle. The arc of a circle whose endpoints are the endpoints of
a diameter of the circle.
is a semicircle of circle C.
A unit of weight in the U.S. system of measurement equal to 2,000 pounds.
One of the segments which makes up a polygon. One of the rays of an angle.
One of the faces of a solid.
an angle An
angle is the union of two rays with the same endpoint.
The rays are the sides and the common endpoint is called the vertex.
There are many types of angles. See the definitions for zero angle, right
angle, straight angle, acute angle, obtuse angle and reflex angle.
a polygon One
of the segments whose union is a polygon; also, the length of that segment.
figures that have the same shape, but not necessarily the same size.
figure that is closed and does not intersect itself.
A fraction with an integer in the numerator and a nonzero integer in the
The ratio (leg opposite the angle / hypotenuse) in a right triangle. Abbreviated
A number which multiplies other numbers to a change their size.
Here we see a size
change factor of 1/2 going from the large triangle to the small. Or
a size change factor of 2 if going from the small to the large triangle.
change of magnitude k A
transformation in which the coordinates of the original figure have all
been multiplied by k. Also called size change factor, and ratio
that do not lie in the same plane and do not intersect.
height of a regular pyramid The altitude from the vertex on
any one of the triangular, lateral faces of the pyramid. It is important
to remember that the slant height is not the acutal height of the pyramid
itself; it is just the height of one of the triangles that form a
face of the pyramid.
height of a right cone The length of a lateral edge of the
cone. It is important to note that the slant height of a right cone
is not the height of the cone itself; it is just the distance a bug
would walk if he walked in a straight line from a point on the base directly
up to the vertex of the cone.
A translation of a given preimage. This occurs when given numbers are
added to every "x" coordinate and or "y" coordinate
of the preimage. The result is that the image appears to "slide"
away from the preimage.
result of adding the same number to the coordinates of the point in a
figure. Also called translation image.
The name for the constant rate of change between two points on a line.
The amount of change in the height of the line as you go one unit to the
right. The slope of the line through (x1,y1)
and (x2,y2) is
IS ALSO DESCRIBED AS:
A line with a positive slope
will rise uphill from left to right.
A line with a negative slope
will fall downhill from left to right.
A line with zero slope
is horizontal because it has no rise between any two points.
A vertical line has undefined
slope because between any two points there is no run.
An equation of a line in the form y=mx+b, where m
is the slope and b is the y-intercept.
circle of a sphere The intersection of the sphere and a plane
that does not contain the center of the sphere.
The union of a surface and the region of space enclosed by the surface.
geometry The study of figures in three-dimensional space.
A value of a variable that makes an open sentence true.
Ex: Given 3x+4=10,
............x=2 is the solution.
an open sentence
Finding value(s) of the unknown(s) in an open sentence that make it true.
a proportion Finding
the value of a variable that makes a proportion true.
The set of all points in a geometry.
A figure whose points do not all lie in a single plane. Also called a
An instance of a pattern used for some definite purpose.
the inequality ,
x=0 is a special case. In fact this special case proves that the given
statement is false, because
be 0, and 0 is not greater than zero. Thus this special case is a counterexample
to the given statement.
The set of points in space at a fixed distance (its radius)
from a point (its center).
this definition implies that all of the points on the iterior, or at
a distance less than the radius, are not part of the sphere. If you
want all those points too, you need something called a spherical solid.
A four-sided figure with four right angles and four sides of equal length.
A rectangle with the same length and width.
If A = s^2 , then s is called a square root
both 3 and -3 are 9 when squared. Remember there are always two possible
square roots, one positive, called the "principal" square
root, and one negative.
Units for measuring area.
inches, square meters, square miles, etc..
form of an equation for a line
A equation for a line in the form Ax+By=C, where A and B are not both
angle whose measure is 180°.
An instrument for drawing the line through two points which has no
marks for determining length.
If two numbers are equal, then one may be substituted for the other in
any computation without changing the results of the computation.
b in the subtraction a - b.
p is a sufficient condition for q if and only if p implies q.
The result of
Two angles whose measures add to 180°.
The boundary of a three-dimensional figure.
The sum of the areas of the faces of a solid.
diagonal (of a kite) The
diagonal that connects the ends of the kite.
A figure that coincides with its reflection image over a line.
For a figure, a line m such that the figure coincides with its reflection
image over m. See above the heart figure with the symmetry line down its
For a figure, a plane M such that the figure coincides with its reflection
image over M.
geometry studied without the use of coordinates.
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